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(1) Performance, ratings and feedback It is extremely likely that you may have h

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(1) Performance, ratings and feedback
It is extremely likely that you may have had experience with receiving ratings and feedback. Industrial/Organizational psychologists believe that it is extremely important to help individuals learn more about themselves, that way, they can (hopefully) strive to better themselves and perform at the workplace.
Nevertheless, ratings are problematic on their own. They may not reflect true performance.
Using an example or personal experience, (a) describe how a work role may not have rating systems that are truly representative of one’s performance at work. (b) Why do you think individuals may be motivated to give ratings that are not truly representative of one’s performance? (c) Finally, do you believe that ratings are necessary? Can we make do without it and use feedback instead? Why or why not?
(2) Leadership
Leadership research explores the elements that catalyse the process of directing groups towards their objectives. Trait approaches suggest that individuals have some innate leadership capability, that they lean towards being a leader due to a combination of their own personal traits. Some argue that contingencies (i.e., situational factors) determine how leaders emerge or perform their function. Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory suggests that behaviors of leaders change according to the quality of their relationships with the subordinates. Transformational leadership suggests that effective leaders are ones that can motivate their subordinates, show care and concern, express themselves charismatically, challenge subordinates to realize their potential. As we can see, there are many approaches and conceptualizations of leadership.
However, one issue that we can encounter would be the question of measurement. How do we know if leadership manifests in the ways that we described above? As such, describe (a) an example or personal experience in which a leader moved/failed to move their team or group towards their objectives. (b) Using a theory from your slides/readings, explain why this leader succeeded/failed in their objectives. (c) Is leadership the only factor that determined group success or failure? Why?

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