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the planned analyses are eerily similar to those reported in Meshi et al. (2019). Simply swapping clauses or switching out words is not sufficient paraphrasing.
Because the analyses are written from a different study, it is difficult to make the connection as to how they help you address your specific research hypothesis. It is fine to cite the analyses of other studies, but paraphrasing should be more consistent. If you are comparing excessive social media use to drug use on the IGT (as stated in your problem statement), you have to show how you will do this. Why make these comparisons and what purpose do they serve? If instead you are only looking at social media users, how will you create groups of high, intermediate, and low users? The analyses as written do not seem
It is difficult to make direct comments on this kind of submission because Blackboard text editor does not allow for comments.
Here are some overall suggestions: The Design should give clear and explicit explanation of variables (IV and DV) and how they are operationally defined. This will help clarify the necessary analyses. It is not clear why you need both ANOVA and correlations here or what they will be used to accomplish as it relates to your hypothesis. Give citation for BFAS/IGT and explain it in more detail – example items on the survey would be helpful.
Excessive use of social media Is Similar to Drug Addiction
School of Professional Studies, City University of New York
PSY 302 Advanced Research Methods
Table of Contents
Excessive use of social media Is Similar to Drug Addiction 2
Problem Statement 3
Research Methodology 4
Participants and Materials 4
Planned Analysis 5
Excessive use of social media Is Similar to Drug Addiction.
More than 5 billion people use modern devices like computers and cellphones to access the Internet worldwide. Young adults between the ages of 15 and 24 make up about three-quarters of Internet users worldwide (McDool, Powell, Roberts & Taylor, 2020). The Internet has given most people various opportunities to share and process new knowledge. Social media distinguishes out among today’s global internet-based ways of interaction and is nearly completely integrated into how most people live their daily lives. Over 5 billion people used the Internet actively as of April 2022, and more than 90% of them were frequent users of social media (Statista, 2022).
These days, maintaining social connections through phone-based communication is crucial, and using social networking sites is one of the most popular hobbies. However, anything in excess is harmful and excessive use of social media could also lead to addiction. The average time spent on social media is constantly rising in today’s culture. Because social media platforms consume endless hours of the day and nearly make customers reliant on them, several businesses have restricted employee access to them during working hours (Hanafizadeh, Shafia & Bohlin, 2021). When there is proof that social media impacts people’s lives, sometimes badly, why do people still use it?
Addiction primarily refers to being extremely dependent on someone or a pastime. Asensio, Hernández-Rabaza Orón, and Semper (2020) claim that the endeavor to satiate one’s appetite and experience pleasure through engaging in a certain repetitive behavior or activity is addiction. People frequently refer to addiction as a challenging behavior to break since the unpleasantness of abstinence or stopping acts as a strong incentive to pick up the excessive activity again. When use is resumed, the relief from withdrawal inevitably turns into a delightful experience in and of itself.
According to researchers, most popular drugs abused by people work by triggering a brain chemical response that greatly raises the quantity of dopamine chemical released into the brain’s reward region resulting in a ‘high’ feeling (Loi, Sahai, De Luca, Shiref & Opacka-Juffry, 2020). Some call it an ‘a feel good’ feeling. The problem is that the repetitive action gets less thrilling, and the individual desires more of the drug to give them the same enjoyment they had earlier with a smaller amount, starting the cycle of addiction. The addiction cycle is usually simple: the more drugs one takes, the more one needs to remain ‘high.’
Individuals with substance misuse frequently have impaired decision-making, making it difficult to learn from their errors and steer clear of unfavorable results (O’Donnell, Skosnik, Hetrick & Fridberg, 2021). Most crucially, those who struggle with drug addiction and behavioral addictions struggle to make moral choices; some even insist on using drugs to feel calm and able to make choices.
No researcher has examined this problem with decision-making concerning excessive social media users. The researcher will examine this similarity between heavy social media users and drug users.
The research aims to determine whether people use social media in excess and whether such people experience decision-making challenges similar to those experienced by drug addicts. The study will concentrate on Facebook out of all the accessible social media networks because more than 75 percent of internet users use it and access it on average over ten times daily (Kowal et al., 2020). The focus of the study will be on how individuals differ in their use of Facebook excessively as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task and the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Andreassen, Torsheim, Brunborg, & Pallesen, 2012). The Iowa Gambling Task is a measure created to evaluate patients with VMPFC’s ability to make decisions in complicated and unpredictable situations (Martnez-Garca et al., 2020).
The researcher will ask the respondents to score the following statement on a Likert scale to determine whether or not social media usage is normal or excessive (in the questionnaire). Among the declarations that must be made are the following:
I frequently consider using or planning to utilize social media.
I’m getting more and more compelled to use social media.
I utilize social media to put my issues behind me.
I frequently try to use less social media, but I’m unsuccessful.
If I can’t utilize social media, I get restless or worried.
My excessive use of social media hurts their ability to do well in school or work.
The following hypothesis will also be included in the study.
H0: People who use social media extensively exhibit compromised value-based judgment
H1: People who use social media excessively don’t exhibit compromised value-based judgment
The researcher anticipates that the conclusions will be applicable and have societal repercussions. First, individuals shall be able to understand themselves and comprehend the relationship between extensive use of social media and compromised value-based judgment. The results will also affect the opinions and methods of therapists, policymakers, and leaders in the technology sector. More research on this topic will give a reference point for these people to discuss and handle excessive social media use in their different professions.
The researcher chooses a descriptive research design since it gives a thorough account of the studied population. As Yin (2018) said, the descriptive research methodology outlines the traits of the population or issue under investigation. It is also effective in analyzing non-quantified topics and issues because it offers the chance to observe the subjects under consideration in a natural setting that hasn’t changed over time and because it gives researchers the chance to combine qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques (Yin, 2018). Given the size and dispersion of the target population, a survey method is particularly suitable because it is relatively simple to use, can be developed more quickly than other data collection techniques, and is an expense (though the cost varies depending on the type of survey), and, most pertinently, can be conducted remotely, which lessens dependence on location (Yin, 2018).
Participants and Materials
This study will be conducted online and include 2000 respondents (1000 women) between 18 and 35. It will be directed at young people in the New York City area. Through published flyers and Facebook adverts, the researcher will find participants. Facebook recruitment has a lot of benefits (Kühne & Zindel, 2020). First, social media advertisements are cheap compared to other online or offline advertisements.
Additionally, the wider audience those social media platforms provide can be seen as a benefit when a researcher needs to reach a big population that is geographically dispersed. Social media is so effective because a message may quickly reach many individuals. Therefore, to promote the study on Facebook and Facebook Messenger, the researcher must purchase advertisement space from Meta Inc. The advertising campaign must be set up so that people who click on Facebook’s sponsored adverts are led to a page where they can complete surveys housed on Qualtrics’ platform.
It should be noted that all participants must be fluent in English because it will be the language of the survey and any other forms of correspondence. The absence of any history of psychiatric problems, including substance use disorders or other behavioral disorders, must be self-reported by each participant. Each participant will receive $5 after the survey is finished as payment for their time.
Participants who responded to a Facebook or recruitment flyer were sent an electronic survey to determine their ages, sexual identity, and BFAS score. After completing the electronic survey, the participants must proceed to the Iowa Gambling Task, an online behavioral testing facility. The participants must check out after finishing the electronic questionnaire and the IGT job, and their allowance will be paid once the submission’s information has been verified.
All analyses were done using the SPSS program (IBM Inc, version 26). To see if participants picked the better decks during the test, the researcher will first run a recurring analysis of variance (ANOVA) with block IGT scores as a manipulation check. The researcher will then examine the proposed adverse correlation between performance on the IGT and heavy Social media use, as determined by the BFAS score. To achieve this, the researcher must undertake a one-tailed, first-order fractional correlation between the BFAS and IGT scores for each score. Additionally, the researcher must perform a two-tailed, zero-order correlation analysis between all data from the survey, including the BFAS, age, and gender. Except for correlations involving gender (binary variable), all associations must be performed with continuous data. All correlations must be undertaken using continuous variables, except for those involving gender (dichotomous variable), which must be point-biserial. The researcher will try to ascertain whether all the meaningful results that have been presented will endure Bonferroni correction for multivariate regression.
This study has certain limitations that are important to note. In the beginning, the researcher will evaluate excessive Facebook use, not use of all social media sites. This restriction is important since it’s conceivable for a participant to receive a poor score on the BFAS for excessive Facebook use while receiving a high score for excessive use of another social media site and displaying odd decision-making. Second, the BFAS is based on individual ratings, which of course, does not. Second, because the BFAS is based on self-rating, it is impossible for the researcher to follow participants’ social media platforms to determine the survey responses provided.
Additionally, although many researchers have studied this topic, particularly IGT, some academics have criticized the paradigm (Chiu, Huang, Duann & Lin, 2018). Other academics believe that the score could indicate a variety of things, such as hesitation when making decisions or even disinterest, with some disputing the validity and dependability of the model as a whole (Schmitz, Kunina-Habenicht, Hildebrandt, Oberauer, & Wilhelm, 2018). The study will try to show how excessive Facebook use affects IGT performance differently across individuals. Last but not least, the researcher searched for a correlation among those who showed a huge spectrum of BFAS scores rather than using a medical sample to contrast with control participants.
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Informed Consent to Participate in a Research Study
Title of Research: Excessive use of social media Is Similar to Drug Addiction
Name of Faculty Advisor: Zachary Aidala, PhD (CUNY School of Professional Studies)
Thank you for your time and interest in this study about how Excessive use of social media Is Similar to Drug Addiction. If you consent to participate, you will be sent an electronic survey online through Facebook. Participants who responded to a Facebook or recruitment flyer were sent an electronic survey to determine their ages, sexual identity, and BFAS score. After completing the electronic survey, the participants must proceed to the Iowa Gambling Task, an online behavioral testing facility. The participants must check out after finishing the electronic questionnaire and the IGT job, and their allowance will be paid once the submission’s information has been verified.
Participation will take about however long they need for the survey.
There are no direct benefits to you personally for participating in this study.Your information might not be as private through Facebook. Your participation is anonymous, and all information gathered will be kept strictly confidential. You have the right to refuse to answer any question. Further, you may end your participation at any time and for any reason without penalty.
If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, or you have comments or concerns that you would like to discuss with someone other than the researchers, please call the CUNY Research Compliance Administrator at 646-664-8918. Alternately, you can write to: CUNY Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, Attn: Research Compliance Administrator, 205 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017.
Statement of consent:
“I have read the above description of this research and I understand it. I have been informed of the risks and benefits involved, and all my questions have been answered to my satisfaction. I voluntary agree to participate in this study. By signing this form I have not waived any of my legal rights to which I would otherwise be entitled. I will be given a copy of this statement.”
__________________________ _________ __________________________ _________
Participant’s signature Date Researcher’s signature Date